Greek and Roman classical architecture. Doric designs emerged in Greece's western Dorian area about the 6th century BC. They were employed in Greece until around the year 100 BC. The Romans copied the Greek Doric column but also created their own simple Tuscan column. These were used extensively in Italy for buildings such as temples and theatres.
The Doric column is so called because of the resemblance of its capital to the head of a doric pine tree. The term "doric" comes from the city of Dorion, where wood was imported from the west coast of Greece for use in the columns of temples built there by Corinthian and Phocian architects. The word "corinthian" comes from the city of Corcyrus, which was the home of a temple built by Ionian architects. The Doric order spread from Greece to Rome, where it was used extensively for public buildings including temples, basilicas, and theaters. The Romans also developed their own version of the column called the Tuscan column after the region in Italy where they were most often used.
Doric order capitals are characterized by a flat base, a straight vertical wall without any indentation, and an ornamental profile above that. The profiles usually take the form of a volute (a spiral curve), a reed (a series of short parallel lines), or a half-volute (an arc of a circle with no ending).
Doric architecture is made up of Doric columns. Since the Doric column was developed in ancient Greece, it may be seen among the remains of what we call Classical architecture, or early Greek and Roman structures. However, since these structures were built of marble or stone, they would have had a wooden framework inside to keep them upright.
The Doric column is so named because its shape is that of a young pine tree (dorus). The term "doric" comes from the city of Dorion, where the column design was first used by Greek architects around 600 B.C. It soon became popular throughout Greece and Rome. Although there are variations on the Doric order, such as Ionic and Corinthian, the original Doric is still considered one of the most beautiful styles of column.
Where can you find Doric columns? They are most often found on public buildings, such as universities, museums, and government offices. Some famous examples of Doric columns include the Capitol Building, Lincoln Memorial, and Sydney Opera House.
What is unique about Doric columns? They are tall and slender with slightly tapering bases and capitals. This type of column provides great support for heavy ceilings or high-level windows.
An ancient Greek temple rendered in black and white with Doric columns. Ninochka/Getty Images The Doric order of Greek temple building, according to Vitruvius, was developed by a mythological ancestor named Doros, who resided in the northern Peloponnese, maybe in Corinth or Argos. His original design was allegedly based on a real structure, which has since been destroyed. Whether this is true or not, it doesn't matter because the Doros model was subsequently copied many times over the course of many centuries. These copies were often modified by their architects to make them more suitable for particular purposes or local conditions.
The first documented use of the term "Doric" to describe a column type is in an epigraphical text dating from 535 BC. However, there are several other column types used in Greek architecture at that time, so the identification of the Doric column as the one now known today isn't certain. What is clear is that by 500 BC, practitioners everywhere were using variants of the Doros model in their work.
In his book "Greek Architecture," Leonard Binder notes that although no complete Doros temple has ever been found, we do have some impressive remnants that attest to its beauty and sophistication. One of these sites is the Acropolis in Athens, where several buildings dating from around 600 BC to 400 BC have been excavated to reveal a complex system of streets and small structures built around large open spaces.