Imhotep, King Djoser's architect, created the first pyramid in 2780 B.C. by stacking six mastabas, each smaller than the one underneath, to make a pyramid rising in stages. This Step Pyramid is located near Memphis on the west bank of the Nile River in Sakkara. It is one of the best-preserved pyramids in Egypt.
The second pyramid was built for King Zoser (3040-3000 B.C.) at Dahshur on the road from Sais to Coptos. Like its predecessor, it is a mastaba with three steps. This pyramid is now in the British Museum in London.
The third and largest pyramid was built for King Menkaure (2890-2860 B.C.). Its location is not known with certainty but probably near Giza on land that is now part of Cairo. The fourth pyramid was built for Queen Hatshepsut (1473-1458 B.C.), who defeated her uncle, the king, to become ruler of Egypt. She built her pyramid near Deir el-Bahri on the West Bank of Luxor. The fifth pyramid was built for King Khufu (c. 2556-2532 B.C.). His original name was Cheops and he was called Khufu after an Egyptian city south of Cairo. The sixth and smallest pyramid was built for Queen Tiye (c. 2670-2610 B.C.).
The year was 27 BC. Saqqara's Djoser Step Pyramid The Step Pyramid was constructed in the 27th century BC under Djoser's 3rd dynasty administration. It is Egypt's earliest pyramid, and while it is not a "real pyramid" with flat sides like those at Giza and Dahshur, it represents a vital milestone in their evolution. The Step Pyramid is an enormous structure, over 48 meters (157 feet) high, made of fine-grained red sandstone. Its height includes the base which measures approximately 394 square meters (4,329 sq ft). Its width varies slightly depending on the side being measured, but it is generally about 810 millimeters (32 inches).
Djoser's goal was to create a tomb for himself and his family that would be worthy of the divine spirit he believed he had inherited from his parents, King Zesergeppi and Queen Meskhenet. He ordered the construction of a great monument at a site near his home, the city of Sais, in present-day Egypt. Although little is known about Djoser himself, what we do know about him comes from ancient writings found in his capital city of Sais. According to these documents, he was a successful military leader who conquered much of Lower Egypt for the Egyptian Empire. After his death, his wife/queen mother married another man and had more children.
The Saqqara step pyramid is an archeological monument located northwest of Memphis in Egypt's Saqqara necropolis. It was constructed 4700 years ago. It was constructed in the 27th century during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser's third dynasty. The pyramid was originally covered with a smooth limestone surface but now only its base remains because most of the top has been eroded by wind and water.
Pharaoh Djoser was the first ruler of the Third Dynasty. His name means "the good god has given life to". According to traditional Egyptian history, he ordered the construction of his pyramid in 2705 B.C. In actual fact, this structure was probably built by workers under the direction of high-ranking officials who may have chosen the site for the pyramid.
The pyramid is 8m (26 ft) tall and its base covers an area of about 12,500 sq m (140,000 sq ft). It consists of 2 million stone blocks and took 20 years to build. It is estimated that it would require 1,800 men to move each block into place.
Djoser intended to be buried at Sakkara but his body was lost when the tomb was robbed hundreds of years after his death. His son Menkaure succeeded him as king but did not live long enough to be buried at Sakkara so his body was taken there too.
Imhotep, the first great engineer, was responsible for the construction of the pyramids. Memphis was the capital city of the Old Kingdom. The city was located on the Nile River in what is now southern Egypt.
The pyramid of Giza was built for Khufu, who took power around 2593 B.C. It is estimated that about 20,000 people worked on the project over a period of approximately 30 years. The height of the pyramid is compared to that of a mountain rather than a hill because it was designed as a monument to see and be seen by many miles around. The Great Pyramid is the largest stone structure in human history. It is more than 467 feet (140 meters) high with an area of 2.5 million square feet (20,900 m2).
In addition to being an architect, Imhotep is said to have been a medical doctor, a scribe, and a priest of Amun. He probably learned all these skills from the masters who came with him from the north. The ancient Egyptians believed that knowledge was power and anyone could become powerful if they knew how to use this knowledge well. So, education and learning were highly respected in Ancient Egypt.
All around the world, early civilizations made monuments to honor their leaders.
The colossal pyramids of Ancient Egypt are among the world's most renowned tombs. The pyramids evolved from mastabas, Arabic for "benches," which were rectangular mud or brick constructions constructed over tombs during Ancient Egypt's First Dynasty (c. 2925–2775 B.C.). Mastaba benches remained the standard tomb design for centuries, but they were usually only a place where the body was placed until it was moved to a pyre or burial chamber.
The ancient Egyptians believed that after death, humans become part of the universe and need to be rescued from limbo. They imagined that people would do this for eternity if they made sure someone would take care of their body after they died. So, they created a way for people to communicate with the living after they were gone; this way is called "afterlife."
The Egyptians used many different materials in their construction projects. Some of the most important materials included: wood for tools and buildings; stone for monuments and buildings; clay for paint and pottery; and gold, silver, and copper for jewelry and other goods.
In addition to using material wealth to make themselves immortal, the Egyptians also invented many ways to preserve bodies for future use.
The Djoser Pyramid is believed to be the first true pyramid built during the Third Dynasty (2666-2532 B.C.). It was also the first pyramid built for a private person, rather than for a king or god.
It is based on the model created by King Khufu (also called Cheops) and it is today located in Cairo, Egypt. The pyramid was named after its builder, who had the title "King's Son of Raemhwam." Although this name is missing from the actual construction materials, it probably belonged to some kind of document attesting that the task was carried out according to his wishes. In addition, two large statues were found near the base of the pyramid depicting the king with his hands raised in prayer, which are now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
Modern researchers estimate that the pyramid was built between 2667 and 2656 B.C. In 1925, an inscription was discovered on one of the walls of the burial chamber containing the remains of a priest named Imhotep. This inscription told that Imhotep was responsible for building the pyramid and provided information about its owner's life.