Pucllana Huaca Huaca Pucllana is located amid the residential structures of Lima's Miraflores neighborhood and dates back to 500 AD, when it functioned as the ceremonial and administrative center for the Lima Culture, a civilisation that lived along Peru's Central Coast between 200 and 700 AD. The culture was based on agriculture and fishing.
The pyramid-shaped structure, made of stone and mortar, has three levels with rooms on each level. It measures about 15 meters high including the flat top where the ceremonial center was located. There are more than 70 steps leading up to the entrance which is on the third level. Inside there are well-preserved murals representing plants, people, and events from the society who built it.
It is considered one of the oldest buildings in South America and its historical significance as a monument of ancient technology makes it important for cultural heritage.
This ancient structure is now protected by law and can only be excavated with government permission. In 2001, an investigation led by Alfredo Zalce y Herrera revealed that the original color of the building was black but later it was painted white to be more visible from far away.
Lima City Hall announced in 2013 that it had approved plans to build a large shopping mall next to Pucllana. The project will include two skyscrapers containing luxury stores and restaurants at the top of the pyramid building.
Cajamarca (Spanish pronunciation: [kaxa'marka]), also known as Kashamarka in Cajamarca Quechua, is the capital and largest city of the Cajamarca Region and an important cultural and commercial hub in the northern Andes. It is located at around 2,750 meters in Peru's northern highlands (8,900 ft)...
The city was founded by the Inca emperor Pachacuti who moved his capital from Cuzco to this site. The city was named after Kashamarka, one of Pachacuti's sons.
It has been estimated that when Pizarro arrived in the city there were about 10,000 Inka residents. However, due to frequent attacks by rebels from other parts of the empire, the population may have been as low as 5,000 people when the Spanish arrived in 1532. The city became a part of La Conquista, but remained under Inca control until the early 16th century when it was conquered by Francisco Pizarro. After the conquest, it was made the capital of the new Viceroyalty of Peru.
Today, Cajamarca is a large industrial center with factories producing textiles, chemicals, and metals. It has two universities and several colleges. There are many festivals held annually in the city including a traditional festival held in August to celebrate its founding date. In December, visitors can watch nativity scenes being built outside local churches.
Lima's Historic Center, also known as the "Ciudad de los Reyes" (City of Kings), is located in the Rimac valley and was created in January 1535 by the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro on the lands governed by the Chiefdom of Rimac. Today, it is a national monument with more than 800 buildings including churches, government offices, and private houses.
The city's history is closely tied to that of Peru. It was here that the first Spanish court was held after the conquest of the Incas, and it was also from Lima that most of Peru's early presidents began their careers before moving up the political ladder.
Lima grew rapidly following its founding, but this growth was halted when disease - mainly influenza - devastated its population in 1879. After this blow, few improvements were made to the city's infrastructure, and many areas such as San Isidro, which was built for the temporary housing of immigrants, remain unfinished today. However, several important public works were completed during this time, such as the new railway system that connected the capital to other cities in Peru. In 1900, just over one million people lived in Lima, but by 2015 this number had increased to three million. Although most of these people live outside of the city center, they are still surrounded by great poverty - over 70% of Lima residents live below the poverty line.
Peru has a complex tapestry of civilizations, ranging from pre-Inca civilisations and empires to Spanish conquistadors. Discover the top eight historical locations you must see.
Peru's Largest Cities
Lima, Peru/Capital Cities
Lima is the capital city of Peru. It serves as the country's business and industrial hub. Central Lima is 27 square miles in size and is located at an elevation of 512 feet (156 metres) on the south bank of the Rimac River, about 8 miles (13 km) inland from the Pacific Ocean port of Callao (70 square km).
Tacna is a significant city and the headquarters of the same-named province in Peru's southernmost region. It has an estimated population of around 756,000 people.
The city was founded in 1551 by Francisco Pizarro as the capital of the newly discovered country of Peru. It was later moved to Lima, but was once again relocated when that city was destroyed by earthquake in 1647. Today, most of the buildings in Tacna are made of brick or concrete and have traditional Spanish styles, such as balconies and patios. However, there are also many buildings in this city with more modern designs like hotels, offices, and shopping centers.
Tacna has many tourist attractions, such as churches, museums, parks, and theaters. These include the Cathedral of Santa María de Ocopa (built between 1559 and 1852), which is the largest church in South America. The building has three naves and is decorated with paintings by local artists from colonial times until today. Also worth seeing is the Municipal Museum, which has many exhibits related to the history of the city.