William Holabird (born September 11, 1854 in Amenia Union, New York, U.S.—died July 19, 1923 in Evanston, Illinois), was an American architect who, along with his partner Martin Roche, was a leading exponent of the influential Chicago School of commercial architecture; their Tacoma Building (Chicago, 1886-89) established the use of standardized municipial codes.
They had offices at 2121 South Wood Street in Chicago.
Holabird was educated at the University of Michigan and subsequently joined the office of William Le Baron Jenney, one of the leading architects in Chicago at that time. In 1880, he opened his own office where he remained for the next twenty years. During this period, he designed numerous buildings, including public schools, banks, churches, and courthouses. He also received several commissions from the city of Chicago to design buildings for its new municipal parks. His work during this early stage is characterized by the use of red brick and white stone facings with terra cotta decorations. After 1891, when he became involved in a partnership with Martin Roche, his style changed to include elements of the Richardsonian Romanesque and Renaissance Revival styles. The two architects are credited with over 100 works together. Holabird died in 1923 at the age of seventy-one. His firm was succeeded by others after his death.
Their work can be seen across Chicago today. The Massachusetts Avenue Bridge which carries Illinois Route 53 over the Chicago River is one of their more famous works.
Jenney, Major William Le Baron The construction of large buildings in the 1880s gave rise to the skyscraper's first architectural movement, known colloquially as the Chicago School, which produced what became known as the Commercial Style. Major William Le Baron Jenney, the architect, designed a load-bearing structural structure. He also invented an innovative system of concrete framing that is still used today for building tall structures.
The Modern Movement was another influential design style that began in the 1920s. It can be characterized by its emphasis on form and function over decoration and detail. Some of the most famous buildings from this period include the Chrysler Building in New York City and the Lever House in New York City. These buildings are now recognized as landmarks. They were designed by some of the leading architects of the time, including Eero Saarinen (Chrysler Building), Louis I. Kahn (Lever House), and Harry Weese (United Nations).
After World War II, another great era of skyscraper design began. The International Style introduced by American architects such as Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson transformed the way we view architecture. Its simple forms with flat surfaces and glass walls made it ideal for modern office settings. It also enabled architects to take advantage of new materials such as steel and plastic which were not possible before. Mies van der Rohe's famous "Twin Towers" project in New York City represent this style very well.
Pierre Charles L'Enfant was a French-born American engineer, architect, and urban planner who devised the basic layout for Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States. He was employed by the government to create plans for a new city on land that had been set aside for it by Congress.
L'Enfant was born in 1754 into a wealthy family of French Huguenots who had emigrated to America. His father was an attorney who served as clerk of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1752 to 1755. Young Pierre studied engineering under the guidance of Benjamin Henry Lee, brother of Mary Leffingwell Lee, wife of General Robert E. Lee. In 1776, at the age of 26, he married 20-year-old Mary Ball Carter, the daughter of a wealthy North Carolina planter family. The couple had three children together before divorcing in 1792.
In 1791, George Washington appointed L'Enfant superintendent of public buildings and grounds. The following year, Congress commissioned him to draw up plans for a new federal city. The project required extensive research into existing cities across Europe in order to establish guidelines for the design of Washington, D.C.. Before beginning his work, L'Enfant traveled throughout the eastern United States observing urban planning practices.