A surveyor must analyze the site and specify exactly where the construction is to be erected on the parcel of land. The surveyor will also determine how much yard waste, if any, can be left after construction has been completed. Usually, the surveyor will make one or more sketches of the proposed construction to help explain his or her findings.
The surveyor's job is very important in determining what code requirements will need to be met before a building permit can be issued. For example, if the surveyor determines that the location of the property line conflicts with the location where the house stands now, then the builder will need to move the line back before a building permit can be issued.
Surveyors use several different methods to locate properties lines. They may use stakes, flags, or spray-painted arrows for boundaries, for example. The type of method used depends on the type of property being surveyed. On farms, it is common to use fences as boundaries. When roads are being surveyed, special equipment is often used instead.
In some cases, the surveyor will have to go inside the property to locate buildings such as houses or barns.
What Exactly Is a Site Plan Survey? The governing jurisdiction for the property generally determines the amount of detail in a site plan. The current and proposed improvements, topography, tree position, tree compensation, projected grading, silt and tree fencing, and lot coverage estimates will all be included on standard site drawings. A qualified civil engineer should review each plan with you before you sign off on it.
In addition to showing where buildings are to be located and how they are to relate to one another, site plans also reveal information about the surrounding environment including soil types, topography, and hydrology. The plan should show proposed locations for utilities such as water mains, electrical power lines, and gas service connections. Landscaping features such as walkways, drives, and parking areas may also be indicated on the plan. Finally, the plan should show or describe physical aspects of the site such as steep slopes, hazardous materials, and unusual building requirements.
A site survey is usually required before a site plan can be approved by local officials. During this survey, an engineer reviews the site with you to make sure that its characteristics are accurately reflected in the plan. The engineer might suggest changes to the plan to better reflect the true nature of the site.
For example, if it is determined during the survey that the majority of the site is going to be used for residential housing, then the plan should clearly indicate so.
OBJECTIVES OF SURVEY The basic goal of surveying is to create designs for estates or structures, roads, trains, pipelines, canals, and so on, or to determine the size of a field, state, or nation. The purpose of geodetic surveying is to establish the accurate locations of widely spaced points on the earth's surface. These points may be natural objects such as mountain peaks or artificial structures such as buildings or towers.
Surveying is the process of determining the position and orientation of physical features on the Earth's surface using terrestrial magnetism and gravity. This is usually done with respect to a fixed reference frame (usually chosen to have its origin at the center of the Earth). The position and orientation of the reference frame itself must be known accurately enough for subsequent positioning of other points via triangulation or other geometric methods.
Terrestrial magnetism provides information about the distribution and intensity of magnetic fields in space. By measuring the direction and intensity of the magnetic field at several locations around a point, one can estimate where it is relative to the prime meridian at Greenwich Observatory, England. The resulting map shows the location of all types of magnetic materials on the surface of the Earth, from iron ore deposits to human habitations.
Gravity provides information about the distribution and intensity of mass along lines connecting pairs of closely spaced points.
A design consultant, who must be a professional engineer, architect, landscape architect, or land surveyor, is frequently used to create site designs. The designer will consider such factors as the type of soil, its moisture content, whether it is fertile or not, and how much sunlight it receives before turning green. The designer may also take into account what else is being built near by if other buildings are being constructed, such as houses or offices. When creating a site plan, the design consultant will also consider what kind of maintenance needs to be done with water, soil, and fertilizer to keep it attractive and functional.
The owner/developer of the property will specify the requirements for the site design. For example, they might want it to be suitable for building sites but not necessarily limited to that use. They might also ask for specific types of features, such as a kitchen garden, pond, or tree preservation areas. Finally, they might ask for adequate space around certain objects on the property, such as wells or pipes, to prevent damage during construction.
In addition to the developer, others who may have an influence on the site design include government officials, architects, engineers, contractors, lenders, and realtors. All of these people may have different ideas about what should be included in the site design.
Site inquiry, also known as subsoil exploration, is performed to gather information on the subsurface conditions at the proposed building site. Soil exploration include defining the profile of natural soil deposits at the site, collecting soil samples, and assessing the engineering attributes of soils using laboratory and in-situ testing procedures. This information is used by civil engineers to design foundations that will be adequate for the anticipated loads without being too costly or time-consuming to build.
Soil exploration is part of the planning process for any type of construction project. The objective is to determine what kind of foundation is needed and where it should be built to avoid damaging existing structures or underground features. Site investigation includes investigating available materials for building foundations, excavating test holes to determine the stability of the ground under planned buildings, and analyzing samples of soil taken from various locations around the site.
The soil investigation report provides recommendations on how to proceed with construction based on the results of these tests. It may also identify other issues at the site that need to be addressed before building can begin. For example, if heavy minerals are found in excavation tests, a special supporting system might be required under the building to prevent damage to the structure.
Finally, site investigation helps determine whether the proposed building location is suitable. If the answer is "no," then another site must be selected. Also, if toxic chemicals were detected in sample tests, then the building construction itself might be prohibited at this site.
The site plan (also known as a block plan) should be created to a standard metric scale (typically 1:100, 1:200, or 1:500). It should depict the planned development in relation to the site's borders and other existing structures, with dimensions provided, including those to the boundaries. The site plan should also include any proposed roads or paths, which are shown as dotted lines on most commercial plans.
Site plans are used by zoning boards and others to determine if a proposal conforms with the zone requirements for the area. They are also used by government agencies when reviewing proposals for new buildings or developments. If you have a question about whether your project requires a permit, you should check with the permitting agency for the local government before you start construction.
The site plan should include the following information:
Description - give a brief description of the project, including its use.
Dimensions - list the width and length of each portion of the site.
Property Boundaries - indicate the location of property lines. If there are no properties involved, use the word "unspecified" instead. You should also mention any easements that may affect the use of the site.
Road Network - show the location of streets, highways, and other elements that will affect future development plans. Include estimated openings and fills where necessary.