Alfred Mullett, the chief architect, based his design on the towering Second Empire-style architecture dominant in France during the mid-1800s. The style is characterized by its curvaceous lines and ornate decoration.
Mullet also designed some of Washington, D.C.'s most famous public buildings, including the Supreme Court Building and National Museum of Natural History. He had a hand in many other landmarks across the city, such as the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle and St. Paul's Church.
Mullet died in 1873 at the age of 52. Although he was not the first American to practice architecture, he is still considered one of the founding fathers of modern architecture. His innovative use of steel frames and interior finishes made him popular with politicians and the public alike.
Furthermore, Mullet's work has been cited as an influence on other architects, most notably H.H. Richardson and William Whitman.
After graduating from the School of Architecture at the University of Pennsylvania in 1872, Alfred Mullet opened his own office in Washington, D.C. That same year, he was appointed chief architect for the Department of War and retained this post until his death.
The bulk of the tenement buildings that began to grow up on the Lower East Side in the 1830s were planned by German architects and built by German and Jewish builders, many of whom looked a lot like the poorer, less educated immigrants who lived in them. The Germans hired Irishmen to work for them; the Jews usually hired Poles or Russians.
In fact, it was another Jewish immigrant, Louis Horowitz, who invented much of what we take for granted today in New York City construction. He is credited with designing the first iron frame building in 1835. Two years later, he opened up a shop across from his home on Broome Street where he made and repaired windows, doors, and shutters. His son continued the business after his death, and in 1853, incorporated it into a company called The American Window Company. Today's Standard Windows are still made in Brooklyn by another descendant of Louis Horowitz.
The city's next major wave of construction came after the Civil War when wealthy Americans started moving back into the city. These new apartments were designed by leading architects of the day such as Henry Hobson Richardson, William Waldorf Astor, and John McArthur. They were built using standardized components that could be bought in open markets or through mail-order catalogues. These components included steel frames with brick or stone walls, floor-to-ceiling windows, marble or wood entryways, and gas plumbing systems.
It was erected in 1920 for Ambassador Irwin Boyle Laughlin, who filled it with his enormous collection of French paintings and Oriental ceramics. It was created by American architect John Russell Pope. The Laughlin family owned it until 1960, when it was bought by the non-profit Meridian International Center. Today, it is a museum devoted to world culture.
Pope was born on August 5th, 1846 in Boston, Massachusetts. He was the son of an affluent family who owned a large brick manufacturing business. Young John spent his early years helping out in the office before deciding he wanted to be an architect. In 1865, at the age of twenty-one, he started studying architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Here he met a young woman named Anna Goodrich. They fell in love and married that same year.
After graduating from MIT, Pope went to work for a firm in Boston before setting up his own practice in 1872. One of his first projects was the renovation and enlargement of an old mansion in Cambridge called "The Groves". This project earned him many new clients and soon he became one of the most respected architects in Massachusetts.
In 1890, Pope was invited to go abroad as chief architect for the U.S. State Department. During his tenure in France, he designed several buildings including two museums in Paris: the Musée Guimet and the Museé Carnavalet. He also designed the Embassy building in London.
Louis Sullivan's Legacy He was a key player in both the Chicago School of Architecture and the Prairie School, and his aesthetic impact can be seen in the designs of others who worked with him at Adler & Sullivan, such as Frank Lloyd Wright, Marion Mahony Griffin, and Thomas Tallmadge.
Born in New York City on January 19, 1856, Louis Sullivan grew up in a wealthy family. His parents were Irish immigrants who owned a grocery store. He had two sisters.
At the age of 21, he dropped out of Columbia University to work for a firm of architects in New York City. Here he learned the basics of architecture from his colleagues and developed some original ideas of his own. In 1879, at the age of 25, he set off for Chicago to start his own practice.
Over the next seven years, he designed dozens of buildings, including schools, churches, and libraries, all across America. He also got involved in politics, running for mayor of Chicago twice but failing to win an election. Finally, in 1886, he founded the National Association of Architectural Students (NAAS), which is still active today in various cities across the world.
In 1889, after settling in Chicago, he began to design houses for rich clients. These commissions helped him gain experience and build up his reputation. Over time, his style became more and more unique and revolutionary.