# Why does the Great Pyramid have eight sides?

The eight sides were apparently found totally by chance in 1940, when a British Air Force pilot, P. Groves, flew above the pyramid and saw the concavity, snapping a photograph that is now renowned among those interested in such things. The Egyptian government has never confirmed or denied this explanation, but they did build an additional museum to display the photo.

There are several theories about why the pyramid has eight sides. One theory says that it has to do with the number eight as a perfect number (see page). A second theory claims that it has to do with geometry - specifically, that the ratio of any side to the cube root of its volume is equal to exactly 1. Because no two quantities are the same size, every surface has a different shape. The sides are also identical in length, which means that they could be used as points of reference for marking off other dimensions of the structure.

As well as being interesting for what it tells us about ancient Egypt, the reason for the pyramid's design has implications for how we think about mathematics and architecture today. In particular, it shows that some ideas proposed by mathematicians are not only possible but also useful in reality!

In addition to proving that math can be useful, this example also demonstrates that even though mathematics seems abstract, there are patterns everywhere if you look hard enough.

## Does the Pyramid of Giza have eight sides?

Contrary to popular belief, the Great Pyramid is an eight-sided building, not a four-sided construction. The four sides of the pyramid are equally separated from base to top by extremely minor concave indentations. This finding is thought to have been discovered in 1940 by a British Air Force pilot called P.O. Lewis who was studying aerial photographs of Egypt's Saqqara site, which is next to Cairo and contains many pyramids and other ancient monuments.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the three Pyramids at Giza to be entirely built of smooth limestone, although some pieces of rubble found inside the structure may actually be sandstone. It is also the only one with its original shape intact. The others were once covered in smooth-sided tiles but over time they have weathered away leaving their uneven surfaces as seen today. However, the texture of the rock under the tiles is still visible even after thousands of years.

In addition to being an impressive feat of architecture, the Great Pyramid is also notable for being significantly larger than any of its predecessors. At its peak, it was more than twice as high as the next largest Egyptian pyramid, which led scientists to believe that it must have had a very strong structural system to support its weight.

Since its discovery, several theories have been put forward to explain how the Great Pyramid was constructed without using any iron tools or technology.

## Are Egyptian pyramids 4-sided?

Groves when he flew above the pyramid observed that no two faces were exactly parallel; rather, they formed an angle of about 19.5 degrees.

In fact, the Great Pyramid is the only one of the three so-called "true pyramids" (the others being the Bent and Red pyramids) to have all its sides perfectly smooth and flat. The other two have very shallow pits for their bases, which are square for the Bent Pyramid and rectangular for the Red Pyramid. However, the depth of these pits is much less than that of the Great Pyramid's base.

All this suggests that the Great Pyramid was intended to be viewed from a specific direction. The Egyptians may have considered it important for visitors to view the structure from the north side to appreciate the complete design. Alternatively, they might have thought that seeing it from some particular angles would make people feel closer to God. No one knows for sure why they built it like this, but it is interesting to note that even today many churches have four stained-glass windows in the front wall to represent the Four Seasons.

The Egyptians used stone blocks for their buildings.

## What was the first true pyramid?

Pyramid with a Bend Mummy (c. 3080-2800 B.C.) found at Giza, Egypt.

Egypt's ancient pyramids were used as tombs for pharaohs of the Egyptian Empire. Under the orders of Pharaoh Khufu (also called Cheops or Kefu), the architect Imhotep designed and built a series of seven pyramids over a period of about 70 years. The first six were successful attempts, but the seventh became unstable and had to be abandoned. In all, Khufu's plan was successful; he did achieve immortality through his preservation in stone.

### Which country has the most castles?

England has around 6,000 castles, making it the world's second largest network of protected buildings after Russia's federal government property.

Castles were originally built to protect against invasion from outside armies. But during peacetime they were used by the nobility to display their wealth and power. They often included large gardens with lakes, fountains, and trees. These are now important sites of natural beauty with many examples being preserved as museums or private homes.

## How many walls does a pyramid have?

This pyramid featured a square base and four triangular sides that curved inward to meet in the middle. Builders had to modify the slope of the structure halfway through construction to make the angle less steep. This increased the thickness of the wall at that point.

A pyramid's walls are its legs. It has two types of walls: strong and weak. The base of the pyramid is made up of strong walls, which are thicker than its other walls. The corners of a pyramid are made up of weak walls, which are thinner than its other walls. If you looked down on a pyramid from the top, its walls would be visible.

Pyramids were used as tombs throughout ancient Egypt. They were also used as mastabas (an Egyptian type of monument) or false pyramids (those without a true pyramid shape). Mastabas were usually made of stone and contained the remains of the dead person buried within them. False pyramids were often built as memorials for someone who wasn't actually buried inside it; they were often constructed by kings as markers showing where their power reached into northern Egypt.

Each side of a pyramid was equal to the others in length, but because they aren't exactly uniform in height, the overall size varies significantly.