The percentage of effort put into a machine by the user (input work) that is converted into work done by the machine is known as efficiency (output work). Because some of the input work is utilized to overcome friction, the output work is always less than the input work. For example, if a person has to push with his or her arms against the weight of a sack of rocks for one hour, then the person has expended 100 hours-worth of physical effort. However, if the same sack of rocks can be made to roll down a hill at a rate of one foot per minute, then the person would only have to maintain this pace for six minutes to have the same amount of output work as he or she did putting in a full hour's worth of effort.
If a machine can do the same job as a human worker but needs no food, rest breaks, or health insurance, then it is called efficient. Machines that perform work more efficiently than humans are called automata. In 1770, Denis Papin invented a steam engine that was thought to be efficient until Benjamin Franklin demonstrated an air pump that worked more efficiently still. Modern machines are much more efficient than humans because they use lubricants and bearings to reduce friction, and motors instead of muscles to provide power when needed. Robots today are very expensive to make and require considerable maintenance. They are used only in factories where quality control is important and people cannot be trusted to operate them safely.
If both input and output are stated in the same units of energy or power, the efficiency of a machine is the ratio of its output to its input. This ratio is always less than one, and it is commonly stated as a percentage by multiplying it by 100. For example, if a motor runs at 2000 revolutions per minute (RPM) and uses 1 watt of power, then its efficiency is 0.02%. Efficiency is useful for comparing different machines with different inputs and outputs. It is also useful when trying to convert measurements between different systems of units, for example converting miles per hour to kilometers per hour.
There are several ways that the efficiency of a machine can be expressed. The two most common are by measuring the actual rate of conversion of input to output, or by estimating the amount of input required to produce the observed output. Machines fall into three main categories based on how they are rated by manufacturers: high efficiency, medium efficiency, and low efficiency.
High-efficiency machines use only a small fraction of their capacity all the time. Because of this, they have very high efficiencies compared to lower-efficiency machines. An electric light bulb, for example, does not use much electricity because it is a high-efficiency machine. Most machinery used in homes and businesses is high-efficiency because they use electrical motors which operate more efficiently than mechanical motors.
Work efficiency is defined as the capacity to get the most out of the least amount of input. It means getting more done with less. Working smarter rather than harder. When you enhance efficiency, you might get more out of the same amount of input—or even less. There are several ways to improve efficiency: reduce your effort level, use technology, hire well, and organize effectively.
Efficiency has a huge impact on productivity. The more efficient you are, the more productive you will be. And being efficient can have a positive impact on other aspects of your life as well. For example, if you're more efficient at work, you'll have more time for everything else in life. And if you use tools and techniques that others consider waste time, then you're also using resources that could be used by others. However, there are times when increasing efficiency makes no sense at all, such as when you need to accomplish very large tasks or work with limited resources. In these cases, reducing efficiency may be necessary to achieve your goals.
Some people think that only micro-managers look after efficiency, but this is not true. Everyone can increase their efficiency by learning new skills and technologies, managing their time, and eliminating waste.
For example, if you're one of those people who thinks that spending too much time online is wasteful, then learn how to live without the internet for a day.