In the 18th century, classicism grew in popularity, while Gothic became associated with barbarism. These individuals frequently claimed that when the Goths stormed Rome in the fifth century, they destroyed "true" Classical architecture and replaced it with a backward, crude form known as Gothic. They argued that Gothic was not only inferior to Classic architecture, but also to any other style that had come after it.
Gothic architecture is characterized by its use of pointed arches instead of flat panels and vaults instead of domes or shells. It also tends to be heavy and solid rather than light and airy. The early Goths may have used some of these techniques, but they were certainly not the first to do so. The Romans had used similar construction methods many times before they were put down by the Germanic invaders who would go on to invade much of Europe.
Both Classicists and Gothic architects worked within the rules of their time. The problem lies in how modern commentators have interpreted those rules. Modern architects tend to like clean lines and simple structures, while the Gothic arch is actually quite complex to create. It requires several curved pieces of wood joined together with hot wax, which can be very difficult to do accurately without breaking down the arch completely.
The association between Gothic and barbarism began in the 16th century with the Italian Renaissance. At the time, Italy was the center of European culture and innovation.
Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) was a popular architectural style in Europe from the late 12th century through the 16th century, spanning the High and Late Middle Ages, with some examples surviving into the 17th and 18th centuries. Buildings in this style are often named for their appearance, such as Gothic houses or hotels.
During the early 14th century, large numbers of people moved from England to France, where they established new towns and villages. The English language had no word for "gothic" at that time, but it is derived from the French word gothique, which means "of or relating to Goths". During the late 13th and early 14th centuries, many religious buildings were constructed in France, some in imitation of German churches. These included hundreds of monasteries for priests known as friars, who preached against crime and enforced moral standards. The French government tried to stop this building program by law, but there were so many violations of the laws that they had to be revised and expanded several times. The last revision was made in 1364 under King John II of France. After his death in 1364, there was no further construction of monasteries for another 70 years, because everyone wanted to rebuild after the devastating outbreak of the Black Death in 1348.
Modern Gothic, sometimes known as Reformed Gothic, was a prominent Aesthetic Movement style in architecture, furniture, and decorative arts in the 1860s and 1870s in the United Kingdom and the United States. It was inspired by ancient Rome and Greece, and used these cultures' classic styles as a template for future development of each country's culture.
Gothic architecture had become popular again after its rejection during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but it was now based on classical sources instead of medieval ones. The British architect John Douglas built several Gothic houses in the early part of the 19th century that are considered precursors to Modern Gothic, including Red House near East Grinstead, West Sussex (1814), and Castle Howard near Hawick, North Yorkshire (1815). These buildings combined the traditional Gothic features of arches, windows, and towers with more modern elements such as horizontal bands of color and flat roofs. They are important examples of Gothic Revival architecture.
In the mid-19th century, the Gothic novel became very popular in Europe and the United States. This genre of literature often included scenes set in imaginary castles or ruins, which attracted readers with their frequent use of mystery, horror, and romance. Some famous novels written in this style include Walter Scott's Ivanhoe (1820) and George MacDonald's The Princess and Curdie (1869).
He also created furniture. In 1872, Robertson built this church for the Free Church of Scotland on Prince's Street in Edinburgh (now demolished). It was an influential design that set the tone for many subsequent churches built in Scotland after his death.
Gothic architecture had become popular again after its rejection during the early Renaissance period, but by the late 18th century it was clear that something new was needed. The Gothic Revival began with architects seeking to revive medieval styles of building within the context of the classical world view of the time. They did so by re-using elements from the past but interpreting them anew, for example by including many windows or crossing vaults rather than the single door and high tower that characterizes traditional Gothic buildings. The Gothic Revival was particularly strong in Britain where it evolved into several different styles. In America, the term "Gothic Revival" does not have such a specific meaning; instead, it describes an architectural style that includes buildings constructed using Gothic techniques without being considered part of the European revival movement.
Gothic architecture had been used extensively by British architects before the rise of the Gothic Revival, most notably Robert Adam and George Edmund Street.